基于 abp vNext 和 .NET Core 开发博客项目 – 数据访问和代码优先

上一篇文章完善了项目中的代码,接入了Swagger。本篇主要使用Entity Framework Core完成对数据库的访问,以及使用Code-First的方式进行数据迁移,自动创建表结构。

数据访问

.EntityFrameworkCore项目中添加我们的数据访问上下文对象MeowvBlogDbContext,继承自 AbpDbContext<T>。然后重写OnModelCreating方法。

OnModelCreating:定义EF Core 实体映射。先调用 base.OnModelCreating 让 abp 框架为我们实现基础映射,然后调用builder.Configure()扩展方法来配置应用程序的实体。当然也可以不用扩展,直接写在里面,这样一大坨显得不好看而已。

在abp框架中,可以使用 [ConnectionStringName] Attribute 为我们的DbContext配置连接字符串名称。先加上,然后再在appsettings.json中进行配置,因为之前集成了多个数据库,所以这里我们也配置多个连接字符串,与之对应。

本项目默认采用MySql,你可以选择任意你喜欢的。

//MeowvBlogDbContext.cs
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;
using Volo.Abp.Data;
using Volo.Abp.EntityFrameworkCore;

namespace Meowv.Blog.EntityFrameworkCore
{
    [ConnectionStringName("MySql")]
    public class MeowvBlogDbContext : AbpDbContext<MeowvBlogDbContext>
    {
        public MeowvBlogDbContext(DbContextOptions<MeowvBlogDbContext> options) : base(options)
        {
        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        {
            base.OnModelCreating(modelBuilder);

            modelBuilder.Configure();
        }
    }
}

//appsettings.json
{
  "ConnectionStrings": {
    "Enable": "MySQL",
    "MySql": "Server=localhost;User Id=root;Password=123456;Database=meowv_blog_tutorial",
    "SqlServer": "",
    "PostgreSql": "",
    "Sqlite": ""
  }
}

然后新建我们的扩展类MeowvBlogDbContextModelCreatingExtensions.cs和扩展方法Configure()。注意,扩展方法是静态的,需加static

//MeowvBlogDbContextModelCreatingExtensions.cs
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;
using Volo.Abp;

namespace Meowv.Blog.EntityFrameworkCore
{
    public static class MeowvBlogDbContextModelCreatingExtensions
    {
        public static void Configure(this ModelBuilder builder)
        {
            Check.NotNull(builder, nameof(builder));
            ...
        }
    }
}

完成上述操作后在我们的模块类MeowvBlogFrameworkCoreModule中将DbContext注册到依赖注入,根据你配置的值使用不同的数据库。在.Domain层创建配置文件访问类AppSettings.cs

//AppSettings.cs
using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;
using System.IO;

namespace Meowv.Blog.Domain.Configurations
{
    /// <summary>
    /// appsettings.json配置文件数据读取类
    /// </summary>
    public class AppSettings
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 配置文件的根节点
        /// </summary>
        private static readonly IConfigurationRoot _config;

        /// <summary>
        /// Constructor
        /// </summary>
        static AppSettings()
        {
            // 加载appsettings.json,并构建IConfigurationRoot
            var builder = new ConfigurationBuilder().SetBasePath(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())
                                                    .AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", true, true);
            _config = builder.Build();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// EnableDb
        /// </summary>
        public static string EnableDb => _config["ConnectionStrings:Enable"];

        /// <summary>
        /// ConnectionStrings
        /// </summary>
        public static string ConnectionStrings => _config.GetConnectionString(EnableDb);
    }
}

获取配置文件内容比较容易,代码中有注释也很容易理解。

值得一提的是,ABP会自动为DbContext中的实体创建默认仓储. 需要在注册的时使用options添加AddDefaultRepositories()

默认情况下为每个实体创建一个仓储,如果想要为其他实体也创建仓储,可以将 includeAllEntities 设置为 true,然后就可以在服务中注入和使用 IRepository<TEntity> 或 IQueryableRepository<TEntity>

//MeowvBlogFrameworkCoreModule.cs
using Meowv.Blog.Domain;
using Meowv.Blog.Domain.Configurations;
using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
using Volo.Abp.EntityFrameworkCore;
using Volo.Abp.EntityFrameworkCore.MySQL;
using Volo.Abp.EntityFrameworkCore.PostgreSql;
using Volo.Abp.EntityFrameworkCore.Sqlite;
using Volo.Abp.EntityFrameworkCore.SqlServer;
using Volo.Abp.Modularity;

namespace Meowv.Blog.EntityFrameworkCore
{
    [DependsOn(
        typeof(MeowvBlogDomainModule),
        typeof(AbpEntityFrameworkCoreModule),
        typeof(AbpEntityFrameworkCoreMySQLModule),
        typeof(AbpEntityFrameworkCoreSqlServerModule),
        typeof(AbpEntityFrameworkCorePostgreSqlModule),
        typeof(AbpEntityFrameworkCoreSqliteModule)
    )]
    public class MeowvBlogFrameworkCoreModule : AbpModule
    {
        public override void ConfigureServices(ServiceConfigurationContext context)
        {
            context.Services.AddAbpDbContext<MeowvBlogDbContext>(options =>
            {
                options.AddDefaultRepositories(includeAllEntities: true);
            });

            Configure<AbpDbContextOptions>(options =>
            {
                switch (AppSettings.EnableDb)
                {
                    case "MySQL":
                        options.UseMySQL();
                        break;
                    case "SqlServer":
                        options.UseSqlServer();
                        break;
                    case "PostgreSql":
                        options.UsePostgreSql();
                        break;
                    case "Sqlite":
                        options.UseSqlite();
                        break;
                    default:
                        options.UseMySQL();
                        break;
                }
            });
        }
    }
}

现在可以来初步设计博客所需表为:发表文章表(posts)、分类表(categories)、标签表(tags)、文章对应标签表(post_tags)、友情链接表(friendlinks)

.Domain层编写实体类,Post.cs、Category.cs、Tag.cs、PostTag.cs、FriendLink.cs。把主键设置为int型,直接继承Entity。关于这点可以参考ABP文档,https://docs.abp.io/zh-Hans/abp/latest/Entities

//Post.cs
using System;
using Volo.Abp.Domain.Entities;

namespace Meowv.Blog.Domain.Blog
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Post
    /// </summary>
    public class Post : Entity<int>
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 标题
        /// </summary>
        public string Title { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 作者
        /// </summary>
        public string Author { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 链接
        /// </summary>
        public string Url { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// HTML
        /// </summary>
        public string Html { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// Markdown
        /// </summary>
        public string Markdown { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 分类Id
        /// </summary>
        public int CategoryId { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 创建时间
        /// </summary>
        public DateTime CreationTime { get; set; }
    }
}

//Category.cs
using Volo.Abp.Domain.Entities;

namespace Meowv.Blog.Domain.Blog
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Category
    /// </summary>
    public class Category : Entity<int>
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 分类名称
        /// </summary>
        public string CategoryName { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 展示名称
        /// </summary>
        public string DisplayName { get; set; }
    }
}

//Tag.cs
using Volo.Abp.Domain.Entities;

namespace Meowv.Blog.Domain.Blog
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Tag
    /// </summary>
    public class Tag : Entity<int>
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 标签名称
        /// </summary>
        public string TagName { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 展示名称
        /// </summary>
        public string DisplayName { get; set; }
    }
}

//PostTag.cs
using Volo.Abp.Domain.Entities;

namespace Meowv.Blog.Domain.Blog
{
    /// <summary>
    /// PostTag
    /// </summary>
    public class PostTag : Entity<int>
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 文章Id
        /// </summary>
        public int PostId { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 标签Id
        /// </summary>
        public int TagId { get; set; }
    }
}

//FriendLink.cs
using Volo.Abp.Domain.Entities;

namespace Meowv.Blog.Domain.Blog
{
    /// <summary>
    /// FriendLink
    /// </summary>
    public class FriendLink : Entity<int>
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 标题
        /// </summary>
        public string Title { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 链接
        /// </summary>
        public string LinkUrl { get; set; }
    }
}

创建好实体类后,在MeowvBlogDbContext添加DbSet属性

//MeowvBlogDbContext.cs
...
    [ConnectionStringName("MySql")]
    public class MeowvBlogDbContext : AbpDbContext<MeowvBlogDbContext>
    {
        public DbSet<Post> Posts { get; set; }

        public DbSet<Category> Categories { get; set; }

        public DbSet<Tag> Tags { get; set; }

        public DbSet<PostTag> PostTags { get; set; }

        public DbSet<FriendLink> FriendLinks { get; set; }

        ...
    }
...

.Domain.Shared层添加全局常量类MeowvBlogConsts.cs和表名常量类MeowvBlogDbConsts.cs,搞一个表前缀的常量,我这里写的是meowv_,大家可以随意。代表我们的表名都将以meowv_开头。然后在MeowvBlogDbConsts中将表名称定义好。

//MeowvBlogConsts.cs
namespace Meowv.Blog.Domain.Shared
{
    /// <summary>
    /// 全局常量
    /// </summary>
    public class MeowvBlogConsts
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 数据库表前缀
        /// </summary>
        public const string DbTablePrefix = "meowv_";
    }
}

//MeowvBlogDbConsts.cs
namespace Meowv.Blog.Domain.Shared
{
    public class MeowvBlogDbConsts
    {
        public static class DbTableName
        {
            public const string Posts = "Posts";

            public const string Categories = "Categories";

            public const string Tags = "Tags";

            public const string PostTags = "Post_Tags";

            public const string Friendlinks = "Friendlinks";
        }
    }
}

Configure()方法中配置表模型,包括表名、字段类型和长度等信息。对于下面代码不是很明白的可以看看微软的自定义 Code First 约定:https://docs.microsoft.com/zh-cn/ef/ef6/modeling/code-first/conventions/custom

//MeowvBlogDbContextModelCreatingExtensions.cs
using Meowv.Blog.Domain.Blog;
using Meowv.Blog.Domain.Shared;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;
using Volo.Abp;
using static Meowv.Blog.Domain.Shared.MeowvBlogDbConsts;

namespace Meowv.Blog.EntityFrameworkCore
{
    public static class MeowvBlogDbContextModelCreatingExtensions
    {
        public static void Configure(this ModelBuilder builder)
        {
            Check.NotNull(builder, nameof(builder));

            builder.Entity<Post>(b =>
            {
                b.ToTable(MeowvBlogConsts.DbTablePrefix + DbTableName.Posts);
                b.HasKey(x => x.Id);
                b.Property(x => x.Title).HasMaxLength(200).IsRequired();
                b.Property(x => x.Author).HasMaxLength(10);
                b.Property(x => x.Url).HasMaxLength(100).IsRequired();
                b.Property(x => x.Html).HasColumnType("longtext").IsRequired();
                b.Property(x => x.Markdown).HasColumnType("longtext").IsRequired();
                b.Property(x => x.CategoryId).HasColumnType("int");
                b.Property(x => x.CreationTime).HasColumnType("datetime");
            });

            builder.Entity<Category>(b =>
            {
                b.ToTable(MeowvBlogConsts.DbTablePrefix + DbTableName.Categories);
                b.HasKey(x => x.Id);
                b.Property(x => x.CategoryName).HasMaxLength(50).IsRequired();
                b.Property(x => x.DisplayName).HasMaxLength(50).IsRequired();
            });

            builder.Entity<Tag>(b =>
            {
                b.ToTable(MeowvBlogConsts.DbTablePrefix + DbTableName.Tags);
                b.HasKey(x => x.Id);
                b.Property(x => x.TagName).HasMaxLength(50).IsRequired();
                b.Property(x => x.DisplayName).HasMaxLength(50).IsRequired();
            });

            builder.Entity<PostTag>(b =>
            {
                b.ToTable(MeowvBlogConsts.DbTablePrefix + DbTableName.PostTags);
                b.HasKey(x => x.Id);
                b.Property(x => x.PostId).HasColumnType("int").IsRequired();
                b.Property(x => x.TagId).HasColumnType("int").IsRequired();
            });

            builder.Entity<FriendLink>(b =>
            {
                b.ToTable(MeowvBlogConsts.DbTablePrefix + DbTableName.Friendlinks);
                b.HasKey(x => x.Id);
                b.Property(x => x.Title).HasMaxLength(20).IsRequired();
                b.Property(x => x.LinkUrl).HasMaxLength(100).IsRequired();
            });
        }
    }
}


此时项目层级目录如下

基于 abp vNext 和 .NET Core 开发博客项目 - 数据访问和代码优先

代码优先

.EntityFrameworkCore.DbMigrations中新建模块类MeowvBlogEntityFrameworkCoreDbMigrationsModule.cs、数据迁移上下文访问对象MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext.cs和一个Design Time Db Factory类MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContextFactory.cs

模块类依赖MeowvBlogFrameworkCoreModule模块和AbpModule。并在ConfigureServices方法中添加上下文的依赖注入。

//MeowvBlogEntityFrameworkCoreDbMigrationsModule.cs
using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
using Volo.Abp.Modularity;

namespace Meowv.Blog.EntityFrameworkCore.DbMigrations.EntityFrameworkCore
{
    [DependsOn(
        typeof(MeowvBlogFrameworkCoreModule)
    )]
    public class MeowvBlogEntityFrameworkCoreDbMigrationsModule : AbpModule
    {
        public override void ConfigureServices(ServiceConfigurationContext context)
        {
            context.Services.AddAbpDbContext<MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext>();
        }
    }
}

MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContextMeowvBlogDbContext没什么大的区别

//MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext.cs
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;
using Volo.Abp.EntityFrameworkCore;

namespace Meowv.Blog.EntityFrameworkCore.DbMigrations.EntityFrameworkCore
{
    public class MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext : AbpDbContext<MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext>
    {
        public MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext(DbContextOptions<MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext> options) : base(options)
        {

        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder builder)
        {
            base.OnModelCreating(builder);

            builder.Configure();
        }
    }
}

MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContextFactory类主要是用来使用Code-First命令的(Add-Migration 和 Update-Database …)

需要注意的地方,我们在这里要单独设置配置文件的连接字符串,将.HttpApi.Hosting层的appsettings.json复制一份到.EntityFrameworkCore.DbMigrations,你用了什么数据库就配置什么数据库的连接字符串。

//appsettings.json
{
  "ConnectionStrings": {
    "Default": "Server=localhost;User Id=root;Password=123456;Database=meowv_blog"
  }
}

//MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContextFactory.cs
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Design;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;
using System.IO;

namespace Meowv.Blog.EntityFrameworkCore.DbMigrations.EntityFrameworkCore
{
    public class MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContextFactory : IDesignTimeDbContextFactory<MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext>
{
        public MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext CreateDbContext(string[] args)
        {
            var configuration = BuildConfiguration();

            var builder = new DbContextOptionsBuilder<MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext>()
                .UseMySql(configuration.GetConnectionString("Default"));

            return new MeowvBlogMigrationsDbContext(builder.Options);
        }

        private static IConfigurationRoot BuildConfiguration()
        {
            var builder = new ConfigurationBuilder()
                .SetBasePath(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())
                .AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: true);

            return builder.Build();
        }
    }
}

到这里差不多就结束了,默认数据库meowv_blog_tutorial是不存在的,先去创建一个空的数据库。

基于 abp vNext 和 .NET Core 开发博客项目 - 数据访问和代码优先

然后在Visual Studio中打开程序包管理控制台,将.EntityFrameworkCore.DbMigrations设为启动项目。

基于 abp vNext 和 .NET Core 开发博客项目 - 数据访问和代码优先

键入命令:Add-Migration Initial,会发现报错啦,错误信息如下:

Add-Migration : 无法将“Add-Migration”项识别为 cmdlet、函数、脚本文件或可运行程序的名称。请检查名称的拼写,如果包括路径,请确保路径正确,然后再试一次。
所在位置 行:1 字符: 1
+ Add-Migration Initial
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo          : ObjectNotFound: (Add-Migration:String) [], CommandNotFoundException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : CommandNotFoundException


这是因为我们少添加了一个包,要使用代码优先方式迁移数据,必须添加,Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools

紧接着直接用命令安装Install-Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools包,再试一遍

基于 abp vNext 和 .NET Core 开发博客项目 - 数据访问和代码优先

可以看到已经成功,并且生成了一个Migrations文件夹和对应的数据迁移文件。

最后输入更新命令:Update-Database,然后打开数据瞅瞅。

基于 abp vNext 和 .NET Core 开发博客项目 - 数据访问和代码优先

完美,成功创建了数据库表,而且命名也是我们想要的,字段类型也是ok的。__efmigrationshistory表是用来记录迁移历史的,这个可以不用管。当我们后续如果想要修改添加表字段,新增表的时候,都可以使用这种方式来完成。

解决方案层级目录图,供参考

基于 abp vNext 和 .NET Core 开发博客项目 - 数据访问和代码优先

本篇使用Entity Framework Core完成数据访问和代码优先的方式创建数据库表,你学会了吗?😁😁😁

开源地址:https://github.com/Meowv/Blog/tree/blog_tutorial

原文出处:微信公众号【阿星Plus 阿星Plus】

原文链接:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/OHBW24PSNIeOARnHlbWBNQ

本文观点不代表Dotnet9立场,转载请联系原作者。

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