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走进WPF之开发类似Visio流程图软件

Alan.hsiang 2022-02-27 15:04:26 WPF 52
当你想画一个流程图的时候,你会发现,很多软件要么需要秘钥,要么需要会员,这时我就在想,可不可自己制作一款流程图软件呢?

当你想画一个流程图的时候,你会发现,很多软件要么需要秘钥,要么需要会员,这时我就在想,可不可自己制作一款流程图软件呢?本文以一个简单的小例子,简述如何利用WPF制作属于自己的流程图软件,仅供学习分享使用,如有不足之处,还请指正。

涉及知识点

本示例主要通过WPF技术进行开发,涉及知识点如下:

  1. WPF绘图,如矩形,直线等功能的相关图形技术。
  2. Thumb控件,本控件可以由用户自由拖动,示例中所用到的可移动的图形控件,都继承于Thumb控件。

Thumb控件简介

Thumb控件是WPF提供的用于用户拖动的控件。默认情况下,Thumb控件并不在工具箱中,需要手动添加,如下所示:

工具箱-->常规-->右键-->选择项,然后打开【选择工具箱对话框】,如下所示:

在选【择工具箱项】页面,打开WPF组件-->选择Thumb-->点击确定按钮,如下所示:

添加成功后,即可从工具箱拖动到页面,如下所示:

关于Thumb控件的简介,如下所示:

namespace System.Windows.Controls.Primitives
{
    //
    // 摘要:
    //     表示可以由用户拖动的控件。
    [DefaultEvent("DragDelta")]
    [Localizability(LocalizationCategory.NeverLocalize)]
    public class Thumb : Control
    {
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     标识 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb.DragStarted 路由事件。
        //
        // 返回结果:
        //     System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb.DragStarted 路由事件的标识符。
        public static readonly RoutedEvent DragStartedEvent;
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     标识 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb.DragDelta 路由事件。
        //
        // 返回结果:
        //     System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb.DragDelta 路由事件的标识符。
        public static readonly RoutedEvent DragDeltaEvent;
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     标识 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb.DragCompleted 路由事件。
        //
        // 返回结果:
        //     System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb.DragCompleted 路由事件的标识符。
        public static readonly RoutedEvent DragCompletedEvent;
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     标识 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb.IsDragging 依赖属性。
        //
        // 返回结果:
        //     System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb.IsDragging 依赖项属性的标识符。
        public static readonly DependencyProperty IsDraggingProperty;

        //
        // 摘要:
        //     初始化 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb 类的新实例。
        public Thumb();

        //
        // 摘要:
        //     获取是否 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb 控件具有逻辑焦点和捕获鼠标并按下鼠标左键。
        //
        // 返回结果:
        //     true 如果 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb 控件具有焦点且鼠标捕获; 否则为 false。 默认值为
        //     false。
        [Bindable(true)]
        [Browsable(false)]
        [Category("Appearance")]
        public bool IsDragging { get; protected set; }

        //
        // 摘要:
        //     发生时 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb 控件接收逻辑焦点和鼠标捕获。
        [Category("Behavior")]
        public event DragStartedEventHandler DragStarted;
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     根据鼠标位置更改时出现了一个或多个次 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb 控件具有逻辑焦点和鼠标捕获。
        [Category("Behavior")]
        public event DragDeltaEventHandler DragDelta;
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     发生时 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb 控件失去鼠标捕获。
        [Category("Behavior")]
        public event DragCompletedEventHandler DragCompleted;

        //
        // 摘要:
        //     取消的拖动操作 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb。
        public void CancelDrag();
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     创建 System.Windows.Automation.Peers.AutomationPeer 为 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb
        //     控件。
        //
        // 返回结果:
        //     一个 System.Windows.Automation.Peers.ThumbAutomationPeer 为 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb
        //     控件。
        protected override AutomationPeer OnCreateAutomationPeer();
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     响应 System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.Thumb.IsDragging 属性值的更改。
        //
        // 参数:
        //   e:
        //     事件数据。
        protected virtual void OnDraggingChanged(DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e);
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     提供类处理 System.Windows.ContentElement.MouseLeftButtonDown 事件。
        //
        // 参数:
        //   e:
        //     事件数据。
        protected override void OnMouseLeftButtonDown(MouseButtonEventArgs e);
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     提供类处理 System.Windows.ContentElement.MouseLeftButtonUp 事件。
        //
        // 参数:
        //   e:
        //     事件数据。
        protected override void OnMouseLeftButtonUp(MouseButtonEventArgs e);
        //
        // 摘要:
        //     提供类处理 System.Windows.UIElement.MouseMove 事件。
        //
        // 参数:
        //   e:
        //     事件数据。
        protected override void OnMouseMove(MouseEventArgs e);
    }
}

通过上述摘要简介,发现Thumb控件提供了三个事件,分别是:

  • 拖动开始事件:public event DragStartedEventHandler DragStarted;
  • 拖动进行事件:public event DragDeltaEventHandler DragDelta;
  • 拖动完成事件:public event DragCompletedEventHandler DragCompleted;

Thumb控件示例

首先在窗口页面上添加一个Thumb控件,然后分别添加三个事件,如下所示:

<Window x:Class="DemoVisio.MainWindow1"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        xmlns:local="clr-namespace:DemoVisio"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="Thumb示例" Height="450" Width="800">
    <Canvas>
        <Thumb x:Name="thumb" Canvas.Left="0" Canvas.Top="0"  Height="100"  Width="100"   DragStarted="thumb_DragStarted" DragDelta="thumb_DragDelta" DragCompleted="thumb_DragCompleted"/>

    </Canvas>
</Window>

然后在三个事件中添加代码,终点是DragDelta事件,如下所示:

namespace DemoVisio
{
    /// <summary>
    /// MainWindow1.xaml 的交互逻辑
    /// </summary>
    public partial class MainWindow1 : Window
    {
        public MainWindow1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }

        private void thumb_DragStarted(object sender, DragStartedEventArgs e)
        {
            //开始拖动
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 拖动
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sender"></param>
        /// <param name="e"></param>
        private void thumb_DragDelta(object sender, System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.DragDeltaEventArgs e)
        {
            Thumb myThumb = (Thumb)sender;
            double nTop = Canvas.GetTop(myThumb) + e.VerticalChange;
            double nLeft = Canvas.GetLeft(myThumb) + e.HorizontalChange;
            Canvas.SetTop(myThumb, nTop);
            Canvas.SetLeft(myThumb, nLeft);
        }

        private void thumb_DragCompleted(object sender, DragCompletedEventArgs e)
        {
            //拖动完成
        }
    }
}

注意,在XAML中,Thumb一定是在Canvas布局容器中,且一定要设置【Canvas.Left="0" Canvas.Top="0"】两个属性,如果不设置,在值为NaN,无法进行拖动。

默认情况下,Thumb控件就是一个丑丑的方块,如下所示:

拖动控件基类

在本示例中,流程图需要多种控件(如:圆形,矩形,线等),不能每一个控件都去实现那三个事件【DragStarted,DragDelta,DragCompleted】,所以需要定义一个基类ThumbControl,统一实现方案。具体如下所示:

namespace DemoVisio
{
    public class ThumbControl : Thumb
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 是否可以输入
        /// </summary>
        public bool IsEnableInput { get { return (bool)GetValue(IsEnableInputProperty); } set {SetValue( IsEnableInputProperty, value); } }

        /// <summary>
        /// 依赖属性
        /// </summary>
        public static readonly DependencyProperty IsEnableInputProperty = DependencyProperty.Register("IsEnableInput",typeof(bool),typeof(ThumbControl));

        public ThumbControl():base() {
            this.DragStarted += ThumbControl_DragStarted;
            this.DragDelta += ThumbControl_DragDelta;
            this.DragCompleted += ThumbControl_DragCompleted;
            this.MouseDoubleClick += ThumbControl_MouseDoubleClick;
            this.IsKeyboardFocusedChanged += ThumbControl_IsKeyboardFocusedChanged;
        }

        public void SetIsEnableInput(bool flag)
        {
            this.IsEnableInput = flag;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 是否具有键盘焦点
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sender"></param>
        /// <param name="e"></param>
        private void ThumbControl_IsKeyboardFocusedChanged(object sender, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {

            this.IsEnableInput = this.IsKeyboardFocused;

        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 双击事件
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sender"></param>
        /// <param name="e"></param>
        private void ThumbControl_MouseDoubleClick(object sender, System.Windows.Input.MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            this.IsEnableInput = true;
        }

        private void ThumbControl_DragStarted(object sender, DragStartedEventArgs e)
        {
            //开始移动
        }

        private void ThumbControl_DragDelta(object sender, DragDeltaEventArgs e)
        {
            Thumb myThumb = (Thumb)sender;
            double nTop = Canvas.GetTop(myThumb) + e.VerticalChange;
            double nLeft = Canvas.GetLeft(myThumb) + e.HorizontalChange;
            Canvas.SetTop(myThumb, nTop);
            Canvas.SetLeft(myThumb, nLeft);
        }

        private void ThumbControl_DragCompleted(object sender, DragCompletedEventArgs e)
        {
            //移动结束
        }
    }
}

具体图形控件

封装了基类以后,其他控件可以在此基础上进行使用,通过ControlTemplate展现不同的形态,如下所示:

  1. 矩形方块

在流程图中,矩形方块一般表示过程,实现代码如下所示:

<UserControl x:Class="DemoVisio.SquareControl"
             xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
             xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
             xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
             xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
             xmlns:local="clr-namespace:DemoVisio"
             mc:Ignorable="d"
             d:DesignHeight="450" d:DesignWidth="800">
    <Canvas>
        <local:ThumbControl x:Name="s" BorderThickness="1" Canvas.Top ="0" Canvas.Left="0" Width="100" Height="60" Background="AliceBlue">
            <Thumb.Template>
                <ControlTemplate>
                    <Border Width="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Width}" Height="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Height}" BorderBrush="Black" Background="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Background}" BorderThickness="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=BorderThickness}" Padding="2">
                        <TextBox Background="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Background}" BorderThickness="0" VerticalAlignment="Center"  IsEnabled="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=IsEnableInput}" MinLines="3" MaxLines="3" HorizontalContentAlignment="Center" VerticalContentAlignment="Center"></TextBox>
                    </Border>

                </ControlTemplate>
            </Thumb.Template>
        </local:ThumbControl>
    </Canvas>
</UserControl>
  1. 圆形图

在流程图中,圆形一般表示开始和结束,如下所示:

<UserControl x:Class="DemoVisio.CircleControl"
             xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
             xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
             xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
             xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
             xmlns:local="clr-namespace:DemoVisio"
             mc:Ignorable="d"
             d:DesignHeight="450" d:DesignWidth="800">
    <Canvas>
        <local:ThumbControl x:Name="s" Canvas.Top ="0" Canvas.Left="0" Width="60" Height="60" Background="AliceBlue" BorderThickness="1" >
            <local:ThumbControl.Template>
                <ControlTemplate>
                    <Grid>
                        <Border Width="{Binding Width}" Height="{Binding Height}" CornerRadius="30" BorderThickness="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=BorderThickness}" BorderBrush="Black" Background="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Background}">
                            <TextBox VerticalAlignment="Center" HorizontalContentAlignment="Center" VerticalContentAlignment="Center" MaxLines="2" MinLines="1" Width="{Binding Width}" Height="{Binding Height}" Background="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Background}" BorderThickness="0" IsEnabled="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=IsEnableInput}"></TextBox>
                        </Border>
                    </Grid>
                </ControlTemplate>
            </local:ThumbControl.Template>

        </local:ThumbControl>
    </Canvas>
</UserControl>
  1. 菱形图

在流程图中,菱形一般表示选择,表达程序中的布尔值。如下所示:

<UserControl x:Class="DemoVisio.RhombusControl"
             xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
             xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
             xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
             xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
             xmlns:local="clr-namespace:DemoVisio"
             mc:Ignorable="d"
             d:DesignHeight="450" d:DesignWidth="800">
    <Canvas>
        <local:ThumbControl x:Name="s" Canvas.Left="0" Canvas.Top="0"  Width="80" Height="80" Background="AliceBlue" BorderThickness="1"  >
            <Thumb.Template>
                <ControlTemplate>
                    <Border Width="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Width}" Height="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Height}" BorderBrush="Black" Background="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Background}" BorderThickness="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=BorderThickness}" Padding="1">
                        <TextBox Background="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=Background}" BorderThickness="0" VerticalAlignment="Center"  IsEnabled="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=IsEnableInput}" Width="50" Height="50" HorizontalContentAlignment="Center" VerticalContentAlignment="Center">
                            <TextBox.RenderTransform>
                                <RotateTransform CenterX="25" CenterY="25" Angle="-45" ></RotateTransform>
                            </TextBox.RenderTransform>
                        </TextBox>
                    </Border>

                </ControlTemplate>

            </Thumb.Template>
            <Thumb.RenderTransform>

                <TransformGroup>
                    <RotateTransform CenterX="40" CenterY="40" Angle="45"></RotateTransform>
                    <ScaleTransform CenterX="40" CenterY="40" ScaleX="0.8"></ScaleTransform>
                    <TranslateTransform X="10" Y="15"></TranslateTransform>
                </TransformGroup>
            </Thumb.RenderTransform>
        </local:ThumbControl>
    </Canvas>
</UserControl>
  1. 直线

在流程图中,直线一般表示两个过程之间的连接,如下所示:

<UserControl x:Class="DemoVisio.LineArrowControl"
             xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
             xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
             xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
             xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
             xmlns:local="clr-namespace:DemoVisio"
             mc:Ignorable="d"
             d:DesignHeight="450" d:DesignWidth="800">
    <Canvas>
        <local:ThumbControl x:Name="s" Canvas.Left="0" Canvas.Top="0"  Width="100" Height="100" Background="AliceBlue" IsEnableInput="False">
            <local:ThumbControl.Template>
                <ControlTemplate>
                    <Grid>

                        <Line X1="0" Y1="0" X2="0" Y2="100" Stroke="Black" StrokeThickness="2" HorizontalAlignment="Center" >

                        </Line>
                        <Line X1="-5" Y1="90" X2="1" Y2="100" StrokeThickness="2" Stroke="Black" HorizontalAlignment="Center"></Line>
                        <Line X1="8" Y1="90" X2="3" Y2="100" StrokeThickness="2" Stroke="Black" HorizontalAlignment="Center"></Line>
                        <TextBox VerticalAlignment="Center" Height="30" HorizontalContentAlignment="Center" BorderThickness="0" VerticalContentAlignment="Center" MinLines="1" MaxLines="2" IsEnabled="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=IsEnableInput}" Opacity="0" Visibility="{Binding ElementName=s, Path=IsEnableInput}"></TextBox>
                    </Grid>
                </ControlTemplate>
            </local:ThumbControl.Template>

        </local:ThumbControl>
    </Canvas>
</UserControl>

主窗体

主窗体主要用于绘制流程图,分为左右两部分,左边是控件列表,右边是布局容器,如下所示:

<Window x:Class="DemoVisio.MainWindow"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        xmlns:local="clr-namespace:DemoVisio"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="流程图" Height="800" Width="800" MouseDown="Window_MouseDown" Loaded="Window_Loaded">
    <Window.Resources>
        <Style TargetType="TextBlock">
            <Setter Property="HorizontalAlignment" Value="Center"></Setter>
        </Style>
    </Window.Resources>
    <Grid ShowGridLines="True">
        <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
            <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto" MinWidth="150"></ColumnDefinition>
            <ColumnDefinition Width="*"></ColumnDefinition>
        </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
        <StackPanel Grid.Column="0" x:Name="left" Orientation="Vertical">
            <Rectangle Width="80" Height="50" Fill="AliceBlue" Stroke="Black" Margin="5" x:Name="rectangle" MouseLeftButtonDown="rectangle_MouseLeftButtonDown"></Rectangle>
            <TextBlock Text="矩形"></TextBlock>
            <Rectangle Width="100" Height="100" Fill="AliceBlue" Stroke="Black" Margin="5" x:Name="rhombus" MouseLeftButtonDown="rhombus_MouseLeftButtonDown">
                <Rectangle.RenderTransform>
                    <TransformGroup>
                        <RotateTransform CenterX="50" CenterY="50" Angle="45"></RotateTransform>
                        <ScaleTransform CenterX="50" CenterY="50" ScaleX="0.5" ScaleY="0.7"></ScaleTransform>
                    </TransformGroup>
                </Rectangle.RenderTransform>
            </Rectangle>
            <TextBlock Text="菱形" Margin="0,5"></TextBlock>
            <Line X1="0" Y1="0" X2="0" Y2="80" Stroke="Black" StrokeThickness="2" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5" x:Name="line" MouseLeftButtonDown="line_MouseLeftButtonDown" ></Line>
            <TextBlock Text="直线"></TextBlock>
            <Ellipse Width="60" Height="60" Fill="AliceBlue" Stroke="Black" Margin="5" x:Name="circle" MouseLeftButtonDown="circle_MouseLeftButtonDown"></Ellipse>
            <TextBlock Text="圆形"></TextBlock>
        </StackPanel>
        <Canvas Grid.Column="1" x:Name="right" >


        </Canvas>
    </Grid>
</Window>

当点击左边基础控件时,在右边容器中,生成新的控件。如下所示:

namespace DemoVisio
{
    /// <summary>
    /// MainWindow.xaml 的交互逻辑
    /// </summary>
    public partial class MainWindow : Window
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 控件列表
        /// </summary>
        private List<Control> rightControls = new List<Control>();

        public MainWindow()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }

        private void Window_MouseDown(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            //this.Focus();
            //this.one.SetIsEnableInput(false);
            foreach (var control in this.right.Children) {
                var thumb = control as ThumbControl;
                if (thumb != null)
                {
                    thumb.SetIsEnableInput(false);
                }
            }
        }

        private void Window_Loaded(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            var width = this.right.ActualWidth;
            var height = this.right.ActualHeight;

            int x = 0;
            int y = 0;
            //横线
            while (y<height) {
                Line line = new Line();
                line.X1 = x;
                line.Y1 = y;
                line.X2 = width;
                line.Y2 = y;
                line.Stroke = Brushes.LightGray;
                line.StrokeThickness = 1;
                this.right.Children.Add(line);
                y = y + 10;
            }
            //重新初始化值
            x = 0;
            y = 0;
            //竖线
            while (x < width) {
                Line line = new Line();
                line.X1 = x;
                line.Y1 = y;
                line.X2 = x;
                line.Y2 = height;
                line.Stroke = Brushes.LightGray;
                line.StrokeThickness = 1;
                this.right.Children.Add(line);
                x = x + 10;
            }
        }

        private void rectangle_MouseLeftButtonDown(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            SquareControl squareControl = new SquareControl();
            this.right.Children.Add(squareControl);
        }

        private void rhombus_MouseLeftButtonDown(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            RhombusControl rhombusControl = new RhombusControl();
            this.right.Children.Add(rhombusControl);
        }

        private void line_MouseLeftButtonDown(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            LineArrowControl lineArrowControl = new LineArrowControl();
            this.right.Children.Add(lineArrowControl);
        }

        private void circle_MouseLeftButtonDown(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            CircleControl circleControl = new CircleControl();
            this.right.Children.Add(circleControl);
        }
    }
}

示例截图

示例基础截图如下所示:

备注

以上示例只是基础,功能并不完善,旨在抛砖引玉,共同学习,一起进步,希望可以对大家有所启发。

贺新郎·九日

【作者】刘克庄 【朝代】宋
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看浩荡、千崖秋色。
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追往事,去无迹。

少年自负凌云笔。到而今、春华落尽,满怀萧瑟。
常恨世人新意少,爱说南朝狂客。
把破帽、年年拈出。
若对黄花孤负酒,怕黄花、也笑人岑寂。
鸿北去,日西匿。

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